Students studying Psychology should use the American Psychology Association (APA) referencing style.

Guides to APA

Or, alternatively, the full print APA Publication Manual is available:

  • The 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is available in the Library at shelfmark 808.066 PUB
The 7th edition of the APA manual has only recently been published with some different referencing rules. As of January 2020:

  • Years 1-3, students should use the 7th edition
  • Year 4, students can choose whether to continue using the 6th ed, or use the 7th ed.
A few of the key differences between the editions include:

  • place of publication is no longer required for books
  • citation rules have changed with regards to when to use et al.
  • all authors, up to 21, are named in the reference list entry
  • DOIs are formatted as URLs
  • 'Retrieved from:' is no longer required for website references.

Reference types

The following examples are formatted according to the 7th edition. See the APA 6th edition page for examples.

Journal articles


How many authors do I include in my citation and reference list?
How do I cite a citation from somebody else's work?